Glossary of statistical terms

A
Administrative records
Institutions use administrative records for administrative purposes, such as keeping a record of its members, activities, staff, etc. Although they were not designed for statistical purposes, administrative records have a significant underlying statistical potential, and can be used to produce statistics as a by-product. They are particularly useful in contexts where there are no regular household or establishment surveys in place, to serve as an alternative source of statistics. In any given country, the administrative records found are numerous and varied, and cover a wide range of topics. When it comes to labour statistics, the main administrative records used are records of employment offices or unemployment benefits (data on registered unemployment), records of workers’ organizations (data on unionization, strikes, etc.), collective agreements (data on 13 collective bargaining, wages, etc.), and labour inspection records (data on occupational accidents). For more information, see the Quick Guide on Sources and Uses of Labour Statistics.
C
Child labour
The term child labour reflects the engagement of children in prohibited work and, more generally, in types of work to be eliminated as socially and morally undesirable as guided by national legislation, the ILO Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138), and the Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182), as well as their respective supplementing Recommendations (Nos 146 and 190). Child labour may be measured in terms of the engagement of children in productive activities either on the basis of the general production boundary, or on the basis of the SNA production boundary. For the purpose of statistical measurement, children engaged in child labour include all persons aged 5 to 17 years who, during a specified time period, were engaged in one or more of the following categories of activities: (a) worst forms of child labour; (b) employment below the minimum age; and (c) hazardous unpaid household services, applicable where the general production boundary is used as the measurement framework. For more information, refer to the Resolution concerning statistics of child labour.
Citizenship
This breakdown refers to the country of citizenship and distinguishes the citizens of a given country from the non-citizens.
Collective bargaining
Collective bargaining refers to all negotiations which take place between an employer, a group of employers or one or more employers’ organisations, on the one hand, and one or more workers’ organisations, on the other, for: (a) determining working conditions and terms of employment; and/or (b) regulating relations between employers and workers; and/or (c) regulating relations between employers or their organisations and a workers’ organisation or workers’ organisations. For more information, refer to the indicator description.
Collective bargaining agreements
Collective bargaining agreements (CBA) are written agreements regarding working conditions and terms of employment concluded between one or more employers or employers’ organizations, on the one hand, and one or more representative workers’ organizations or duly elected and authorised representatives of the workers (according to national laws and regulations), on the other. Ministries of Labour often maintain administrative records on CBA, including information on collective bargaining coverage, content and duration of the agreements. For more information, refer to the Resolution concerning statistics of collective agreements.
Collective bargaining coverage rate
The collective bargaining coverage rate conveys the number of workers covered by one or more collective agreements as a percentage of the total number of workers.
Collective bargaining coverage rate
The collective bargaining coverage rate conveys the number of workers covered by one or more collective agreements as a percentage of the total number of workers. For more information, refer to the indicator description.
Combined rate of time-related underemployment and unemployment (LU2)
The combined rate of time-related underemployment and unemployment (LU2) represents the share of the labour force that are either in unemployment or time-related underemployment. For more information, refer to the Resolution concerning statistics of work, employment and labour underutilization.
Combined rate of unemployment and potential labour force (LU3)
The combined rate of unemployment and potential labour force (LU3) represents the share of the extended labour force that are in unemployment or the potential labour force. In other words, it is calculated as: LU3 (%) = 100 * (Unemployment + Potential labour force) / Extended labour force. For more information, refer to the Resolution concerning statistics of work, employment and labour underutilization.
Compensation
Compensation of employees is a concept defined in the United Nations System of National Accounts 2008 as the total remuneration, in cash or in kind, payable by an enterprise to an employee in return for work done by the latter during the accounting period. The compensation of employees has two main components: a) wages and salaries payable in cash or in kind and b) social insurance contributions payable by employers, which include contributions to social security schemes; actual social contributions to other employment-related social insurance schemes and imputed social contributions to other employment-related social insurance schemes.
Composite measure of labour underutilization (LU4)
The composite measure of labour underutilization (LU4) represents the share of the extended labour force that are in unemployment, time-related underemployment or the potential labour force. In other words, it is calculated as: LU4 (%) = 100 * (Unemployment + Time-related underemployment + Potential labour force) / Extended labour force. For more information, refer to the Resolution concerning statistics of work, employment and labour underutilization.
Consumer Price Index (CPI)
The Consumer Price Index (CPI) is an index that measures the rate at which the prices of consumption goods and services are changing from month to month (or from quarter to quarter). The prices are collected from shops or other retail outlets. The usual method of calculation is to take an average of the period-to-period price changes for the different products, using as weights the average amounts that households spend on them. CPIs are official statistics that are usually produced by national statistical offices, ministries of labour or central banks. A CPI measures the rate of price inflation as experienced and perceived by households in their role as consumers. It is also widely used as a proxy for a general index of inflation for the economy as a whole, partly because of the frequency and timeliness with which it is produced. It has become a key statistic for purposes of economic policy-making, especially monetary policy. For more information, see the CPI manual.
Consumer price surveys
Consumer price surveys are designed to collect information for the consumer price index (CPI). A CPI is an estimate based on a sample of households to estimate weights, and a sample of zones within regions, a sample of outlets, a sample of goods and services and a sample of time periods for price observation. The sample size and sample selection methods for both outlets and the goods and services for which price movements over time are to be observed should ensure that the prices collected are representative and sufficient to meet the requirements for the accuracy of the index, but also that the collection process is cost-effective. The sample of prices should reflect the importance, in terms of relative expenditures, of the goods and services available for purchase by consumers in the reference period, the number, types and geographic spread of outlets that are relevant for each good and service, and the dispersion of prices and price changes across outlets.
Country of destination
An emigrant’s country of destination is the country, other than his country of citizenship, to which that person transfers his or her usual residence.
Country of usual residence
A person’s country of usual residence is the country in which the person has a place to live where he or she normally spends the daily period of rest.
D
Days lost per occupational injury
Days lost per occupational injury is defined as the average number of calendar days lost per new cases of non-fatal occupational injury resulting in temporary incapacity. For more information, refer to the Resolution concerning statistics of occupational injuries (resulting from occupational accidents).
Days not worked due to strikes and lockouts
Days not worked as a result of strikes and lockouts represent the total number of working days not worked as a result of strikes and lockouts in progress during the year. It is measured in terms of the sum of the actual working days during which work would normally have been carried out by each worker involved had there been no stoppage. For more information, refer to the Resolution concerning statistics of strikes, lockouts and other action due to labour disputes.
Decent Work Indicators (DWI)
The Framework on the Measurement of Decent Work covers 10 substantive elements, which are closely linked to the four strategic pillars of the Decent Work Agenda; that is, (i) International labour standards and fundamental principles and rights at work (ii) Employment creation (iii) Social protection and (iv) Social dialogue and tripartism.  The statistical and legal indicators in the framework are described in the Decent Work Indicators (DWI) manual.
Disability status
This classification differentiates between persons with and without disability. The term “disability”, as defined in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) (World Health Organization, Geneva, 2001), is used as an umbrella term, covering impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions. Impairments are problems in body function or structure such as a significant deviation or loss. Activity limitations are difficulties an individual may have in executing activities. Participation restrictions are problems an individual may experience in involvement in life situations. For measurement purposes, a person with disability is defined as a person who is limited in the kind or amount of activities that he or she can do because of ongoing difficulties due to a long-term physical condition, mental condition or health problem. The following list of broad categories of disabilities, may be used:
– seeing difficulties (even if wearing glasses)
– hearing difficulties (even if using hearing aid)
– speaking difficulties (e.g., talking)
– moving/mobility difficulties (e.g., walking, climbing stairs, standing)
– body movement difficulties (e.g., reaching, crouching, kneeling)
– gripping/holding difficulties (e.g., using fingers to grip or handle objects)
– learning difficulties (e.g., intellectual difficulties, retardation)
– behavioural difficulties (e.g., psychological, emotional problems)
– personal care difficulties (e.g., bathing, dressing, feeding)
– other difficulties
Discouraged job-seekers
Discouraged job-seekers, a subset of the potential labour force, refer to those persons of working age who during a specified reference period were without work and available for work, but did not look for work in the recent past for specific reasons (for example, believing that there were no jobs available, believing there were none for which they would qualify, or having given up hope of finding employment). The working-age population is commonly defined as persons aged 15 years and older, but this varies from country to country. In addition to using a minimum age threshold, certain countries also apply a maximum age limit.
Duration of unemployment
The duration of unemployment may be defined as a period of time from when the person began seeking employment or, if that job search was interrupted by a period of employment, since the person was last employed, until the end of the survey reference week, whichever is the shorter.
E
Earnings
Earnings relates to gross remuneration in cash and in kind paid to employees, as a rule at regular intervals, for time worked or work done together with remuneration for time not worked, such as annual vacation, other type of paid leave or holidays. Earnings include direct wages and salaries, remuneration for time not worked (excluding severance and termination pay), bonuses and gratuities and housing and family allowances paid by the employer directly to this employee. Earnings exclude employers’ contributions in respect of their employees paid to social security and pension schemes and also the benefits received by employees under these schemes. Earnings also exclude severance and termination pay. For more information, refer to the indicator description.
Economic or establishment census
An economic/establishment census is a procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information on the full set of economic units belonging to a given population or universe. It is the complete enumeration of a population or groups at a point in time with respect to well defined characteristics. The partial enumeration resulting from a failure to cover the whole population may be referred to as an “incomplete census”. An economic census is a valuable source of benchmark information on total employment and size of establishments, employment by economic activity, hours of work, and earnings, among others. Employment is measured as the number of jobs held by employees, not the number of employed persons. The units of observation are establishments or enterprises. For more information, refer to the Quick Guide on Sources and Uses of Labour Statistics.
Employees
Employees are all those workers who hold paid employment jobs, which are those where the incumbents hold employment contracts, which give them a basic remuneration not directly dependent upon the revenue of the unit for which they work.
Employment
Persons in employment are defined as all those of working age who, during a short reference period, were engaged in any activity to produce goods or provide services for pay or profit. They comprise employed persons “at work”, i.e. who worked in a job for at least one hour; and employed persons “not at work” due to temporary absence from a job, or to working-time arrangements (such as shift work, flexitime and compensatory leave for overtime). For more information, refer to the Resolution concerning statistics of work, employment and labour underutilization.
Employment office records
Employment office records are administrative data gathered by employment offices through the declaration of registered employers, employees and unemployed persons from which labour-related data on topics such as job vacancies and unemployed jobseekers are made available.
Employment-related income
Employment-related income consists of the payments, in cash, in kind or in services, which are received by individuals, for themselves or in respect of their family members, as a result of their current or former involvement in paid or self-employment jobs. Employment-related income excludes income derived from other sources such as property, social assistance, transfers, etc., not related to employment. Income related to paid employment consists of all payments and benefits in cash, kind or services, which are received, over a given reference period, by individuals for themselves or in respect of their family members, by virtue of their involvement in current or former paid employment jobs. Such payments and benefits may be provided by the employer, social security or compulsory insurance schemes or the State. Income related to self-employment is defined as the income which is received, over a given reference period, by individuals, for themselves or in respect of their family members, as a result of their current or former involvement in self-employment jobs. For more information, refer to the Resolution concerning the measurement of employment-related income.
Employment-to-population ratio
The employment-to-population ratio expresses the number of persons who are employed as a percent of the total working age population.
Establishment register
An establishment or business register is a mechanism for recording selected information pertaining to establishments or businesses in a country or area. National business registers are often maintained by a public entity in accordance with national legislation. The business register contains current information on the number of registered businesses and may include key information about the business such as its legal form, headquarters, capital, and legal representatives. Business registers differ from one another in terms of their content, updating 247 frequency, legal checks, legal value of the registered information, and the ability to access documents. They can provide a sampling frame for the selection of establishments, for example, for employment-based establishment surveys. For more information, refer to the Quick Guide on Sources and Uses of Labour Statistics.
Establishment survey
An establishment survey is a survey of a sample of establishments or enterprises which represent worksites for employees. Information about the jobs held by self-employed workers is typically excluded from such surveys. They are conducted from a production perspective and seek to describe labour as an input to production in establishments. Such surveys collect information on jobs rather than on persons employed, thus persons who have jobs in more than one establishment will be counted more than once. Moreover, they often only cover a subset of all establishments in an industry, normally those above a certain size limit, and typically sample only formal sector establishments. The agricultural sector is commonly excluded and sometimes such surveys are limited in scope to a key sector of the economy such as manufacturing. Such a survey is often conducted in order to provide estimates on employment, hours, and earnings of employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry. They may also provide information on variables such as employment or wages by occupation, labour cost, basic data for productivity, or employee benefits. For more information, refer to the Quick Guide on Sources and Uses of Labour Statistics.
Extended labour force
The extended labour force is defined as the sum of the labour force plus the potential labour force. The potential labour force is defined as all persons of working age who, during the short reference period, were neither in employment nor in unemployment and: (a) carried out activities to “seek employment”, were not “currently available” but would become available within a short subsequent period established in the light of national circumstances (i.e. unavailable jobseekers); or (b) did not carry out activities to “seek employment”, but wanted employment and were “currently available” (i.e. available potential jobseekers). For more information, refer to the Resolution concerning statistics of work, employment and labour underutilization.
F
Fatal occupational injury
An occupational injury that is fatal is the result of an occupational accident where death occurred within one year from the day of the accident. For more information, refer to the Resolution concerning statistics of occupational injuries (resulting from occupational accidents).
Forms of work
Work comprises any activity performed by persons of any sex and age to produce goods or to provide services for use by others or for own use. There are five mutually exclusive forms of work, which are distinguished on the basis of the intended destination of the production (for own final use; or for use by others, i.e. other economic units) and the nature of the transaction (i.e. monetary or non-monetary transactions, and transfers), as follows:
– own-use production work comprising production of goods and services for own final use;
– employment work comprising work performed for others in exchange for pay or profit;
– unpaid trainee work comprising work performed for others without pay to acquire workplace experience or skills;
– volunteer work comprising non-compulsory work performed for others without pay;
– other work activities (these include such activities as unpaid community service and unpaid work by prisoners, when ordered by a court or similar authority, and unpaid military or alternative civilian service, which may be treated as a distinct form of work for measurement).
For more information, refer to the Resolution concerning statistics of work, employment and labour underutilization and the page on the forms of work framework.
Full-time equivalent (FTE)
A full-time equivalent, sometimes abbreviated as FTE, is a unit to measure employed persons in a way that makes them comparable although they may work a different number of hours per week. The unit is obtained by comparing an employee’s average number of hours worked to the average number of hours of a full-time worker. A full-time worker is therefore counted as one FTE, while a part-time worker gets a score in proportion to the hours he or she works.
G
General government sector
The general government sector includes all government units, social security funds and non-market non-profit Institutions (NPIs) that are controlled and mainly financed by public authority.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
Gross Domestic Product, or GDP, represents the monetary value of all goods and services produced within a country over a specified period of time.
H
High-skilled occupations
Broad skill levels are based on the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO). High-skilled occupations refer to ISCO-08 and ISCO-88 categories 1 through 3.  In ISCO-08, this includes managers, professionals, and technicians and associate professionals. For more information, including the full correspondence table, refer to the ISCO page.
Hours actually worked
The concept of hours actually worked within the System of National Accounts (SNA) production boundary relates to the time that persons in employment spend directly on, and in relation to, productive activities; down time; and resting time during a specified time reference period. It thus includes (a) “direct hours” or the time spent carrying out the tasks and duties of a job, (b) “related hours”, or the time spent maintaining, facilitating or enhancing productive activities (c) “down time”, or time when a person in a job cannot work due to machinery or process breakdown, accident, lack of supplies or power or Internet access and (d) “resting time”, or time spent in short periods of rest, relief or refreshment, including tea, coffee or prayer breaks, generally practised by custom or contract according to established norms and/or national circumstances. Hours actually worked excludes time not worked during activities such as: (a) Annual leave, public holidays, sick leave, parental leave or maternity/paternity leave, other leave for personal or family reasons or civic duty, (b) Commuting time between work and home when no productive activity for the job is performed; for paid employment, even when paid by the employer; (c) Time spent in certain educational activities; for paid employment, even when authorized, paid or provided by the employer; (d) Longer breaks distinguished from short resting time when no productive activity is performed (such as meal breaks or natural repose during long trips); for paid employment, even when paid by the employer. For more information, refer to the Resolution concerning the measurement of working time.
Hours paid for
For a paid-employment job, hours paid for refers to the time for which employees have received payment from their employer (at normal or premium rates, in cash or in kind) during a specified reference period, regardless of whether the hours were actually worked or not. It includes time paid but not worked such as paid annual leave, paid public holidays and certain absences such as paid sick leave, and excludes time worked but not paid by the employer, such as unpaid overtime, and absences that are not paid by the employer, such as unpaid educational leave or maternity leave. For more information, refer to the Resolution concerning the measurement of working time.
Hours usually worked
The concept of hours usually worked relates to the typical value of hours actually worked in a job per a short reference period such as one week, over a long observation period of a month, quarter, season or year that comprises the short reference measurement period used. The typical value may be the modal value of the distribution of hours actually worked per short period over the long observation period, where meaningful. The short reference period for measuring hours usually worked should be the same as the reference period used to measure employment. For more information, refer to the Resolution concerning the measurement of working time.
Household income and expenditure survey (HIES)
A household income and expenditure survey (HIES) collects information about the expenditure, income and household characteristics of a sample of resident households. The general objectives for conducting the HIES are to identify the net levels and patterns of expenditure of private households on a comprehensive range of goods and services purchased for private use and determine how these levels and patterns vary according to income levels and other characteristics of households, such as size and composition, location and principal sources of cash income. Such surveys may be used to estimate poverty and income distribution variables. For more information, refer to the Quick Guide on Sources and Uses of Labour Statistics.
Household survey
By definition, a household survey includes data on households. A household is defined to be a basic residential unit. Household-based surveys are best suited for collecting statistics of work and of the labour force covering the resident population, their participation in all jobs and in all forms of work – in particular, work in the informal economy, own-use production work, unpaid trainee work and volunteer work. The most common type of household survey used to produce labour statistics is the labour force survey. For more information, refer to the Quick Guide on Sources and Uses of Labour Statistics.
I
In transition
Among the three possible school-to-work transition stages, the “in transition” stage refers to a young person (aged 15 to 29) who is:
– In school and currently employed or unemployed (i.e., in the labour force) or
– Not in school and unemployed or
– Not in school and currently employed in a temporary and unsatisfactory job or
– Not in school and not in employment but aiming to be employed later.
Incapacity for work
Incapacity for work is the inability of the victim, due to an occupational injury, to perform the normal duties of work in the job or post occupied at the time of the occupational accident. Incapacity can be permanent or temporary. For more information, refer to the Resolution concerning statistics of occupational injuries (resulting from occupational accidents).
Incidence rate of occupational injuries
The incidence rate of occupational injuries is calculated as the number of new cases of occupational injury during the calendar year per 100’000 workers in the reference group. For more information, refer to the Resolution concerning statistics of occupational injuries (resulting from occupational accidents).
Industrial relations
Industrial relations refers to the relationship between employers and employees. Related topics include collective bargaining, trade union membership and work stoppages (strikes and lockouts). For more information, refer to the indicator description.
Inflow of employed migrants
Inflows of employed migrants refer to the number of persons who changed their country of usual residence and were also employed during a specified brief period.
Inflow of international migrants
Depending on the criterion used to define international migration, the inflow of international migrants includes either foreign?born individuals or non?citizens who moved to the country during the reference period to establish usual residence there.
Inflow of nationals returned from abroad
This inflow refers to the number of citizens who return from a period of residence abroad to live again in their country of citizenship during the reference period.
Inflow of return migrants
The inflow of return migrants refers to the number of migrants who returned from a period of residence abroad to live again in their country of citizenship (or country of birth, depending on the context).
Inflow of working-age migrants
Inflow of working-age migrants refer to the number of immigrants (e.g., non-citizens or foreign-born persons) who are 15 years old and over and changed their country of usual residence during the reference period.
Informal employment
Informal employment comprises persons who in their main job were: (a) own-account workers, employers or members of producers’ cooperatives employed in their own informal sector enterprises; (b) own-account workers engaged in the production of goods exclusively for own final use by their household; (c) contributing family workers, irrespective of whether they work in formal or informal sector enterprises; or (d) employees holding informal jobs, whether employed by formal sector enterprises, informal sector enterprises, or as paid domestic workers by households. For more information, refer to the indicator description.
Informal sector
Employment in the informal sector refers all persons who, during a given reference period, were employed in at least one informal sector enterprise, irrespective of their status in employment and whether it was their main or a secondary job. An informal sector enterprise is (1) an unincorporated enterprise and (2) a market enterprise (i.e., it sells at least some of the goods or services it produces), and (3) meets at least one of the following criteria: (i) the enterprise is not registered, (ii) the employees of the enterprise are not registered, or (iii) the number of persons engaged on a continuous basis is below a threshold determined by the country. For more information, refer to the indicator description.
International Classification of Status in Employment (ICSE)
Jobs can be classified with respect to the type of explicit or implicit contract of employment the person has with other persons or organizations. The basic criteria used to define the groups of the classification are the type of economic risk and the type of authority over establishments and other workers which the job incumbents have or will have. Indicators disaggregated by status in employment are provided according to the latest version of the International Standard Classification of Status in Employment (ICSE-93). For more information, refer to the page on status at work.
International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED)
The International Standard Classification of Education, abbreviated as ISCED, is a statistical framework for organizing information on education maintained by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).
International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO)
The International standard classification of occupations, abbreviated as ISCO, is an international classification for organising jobs into a clearly defined set of groups according to the tasks and duties undertaken in the job. It is maintained by the ILO. For more information, refer to the ISCO page.
International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC)
The International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities, abbreviated as ISIC, is an international standard for classifying data according to kind of economic activity in the fields of production, employment, gross domestic product and other statistical areas. This type of classification refers to the main activity of the establishment in which a person worked during the reference period, or last worked if unemployed. The branch of economic activity of a person does not depend on the specific duties or functions of the person’s job, but on the characteristics of the economic unit in which this person works.
J
Job
A job or work activity is defined as a set of tasks and duties performed, or meant to be performed, by one person for a single economic unit. The term job is used in reference to employment. Persons may have one or several jobs. Those in self-employment will have as many jobs as the economic units they own or co-own, irrespective of the number of clients served. In cases of multiple job-holding, the main job is that with the most hours usually worked, as defined in the international statistical standards on working time.
L
LU2
See combined rate of time-related underemployment and unemployment
LU3
See combined rate of unemployment and potential labour force 
LU4
See combined rate of unemployment and potential labour force 
Labour cost
The statistical concept of labour cost comprises remuneration for work performed, payments in respect of time paid for but not worked, bonuses and gratuities, the cost of food, drink and other payments in kind, cost of workers’ housing borne by employers, employers’ social security expenditures, cost to the employer for vocational training, welfare services and miscellaneous items, such as transport of workers, work clothes and recruitment, together with taxes regarded as labour cost. For more information, refer to the Resolution concerning statistics of labour cost and the indicator description.
Labour force
The labour force comprises all persons of working age who furnish the supply of labour for the production of goods and services during a specified time-reference period. It refers to the sum of all persons of working age who are employed and those who are unemployed. For more information, refer to the Resolution concerning statistics of work, employment and labour underutilization.
Labour force participation rate
The labour force participation rate expresses the labour force as a percent of the working-age population. For more information, refer to the indicator description.
Labour force status
Persons may be classified in a short reference period according to their labour force status as being in employment, in unemployment, or outside the labour force; and among these, in the potential labour force. For more information, refer to the Resolution concerning statistics of work, employment and labour underutilization.
Labour force survey
A labour force survey (LFS) is a household-based sample survey focused on the labour force status of the working age population and related statistics. Survey respondents are members of sampled households. The LFS seeks to provide reliable, coherent information from a socioeconomic perspective about the total working age population and its components, in particular the labour force. Such surveys often allow disaggregations by personal characteristics such as sex, age, educational attainment, and in some cases, by migrant status and ethnicity as well as information about the jobs held by employed persons (e.g. occupation, economic activity and type of contract). The LFS, which is most often conducted at least once a year (in many cases on a quarterly, monthly or even continual basis), constitutes the main source of statistics for monitoring labour markets, labour underutilization including unemployment, and the quality of jobs and working conditions of persons in employment and other forms of work. For more information, refer to the Quick Guide on Sources and Uses of Labour Statistics.
Labour inspection visits
Labour inspection visits refer to the physical presence of a labour inspector in a workplace for the purpose of carrying out a labour inspection and which is duly documented as required by national legislation.
Labour inspectorate records
Labour inspectorate records are administrative records about the workplace inspections carried out by public officials or other authorities who are responsible for key labour inspection activities to secure the enforcement of the legal provisions relating to conditions of work and the protection of workers while engaged in their work. Information may include total number of work places that could be selected for inspection, number of labour inspectors, and number of labour inspection visits, among others.
Labour inspectors
Labour inspectors are public officials or other authorities who are responsible for three key labour inspection activities: a) securing the enforcement of the legal provisions relating to conditions of work and the protection of workers while engaged in their work, such as provisions relating to hours, wages, safety, health and welfare, the employment of children and young persons, and other connected matters, in so far as such provisions are enforceable by labour inspectors; b) supplying technical information and advice to employers and workers concerning the most effective means of complying with the legal provisions; c) bringing to the notice of the competent authority defects or abuses not specifically covered by existing legal provisions. Labour inspectors have the authority to initiate processes that may lead to legal action.
Labour productivity
Productivity represents the amount of output per unit of input. It is a key measure of economic performance. In ILOSTAT’s indicator, output is measured as gross domestic product (GDP) for the aggregate economy expressed at purchasing power parities (PPP) to account for price differences in countries. The indicator on labour productivity is calculated as follows: Labour productivity = GDP at constant prices / Employment. For more information, refer to the indicator description.
Labour underutilization
Labour underutilization refers to mismatches between labour supply and demand, which translate into an unmet need for employment among the population. Measures of labour underutilization include time-related underemployment, unemployment, and the potential labour force. See LU2, LU3 and LU4. Other dimensions of underutilization of labour at the level of individuals as well as the economy are skills mismatches and slack work.
Lockouts
A lockout is a total or partial temporary closure of one or more places of employment, or the hindering of the normal work activities of employees, by one or more employers with a view to enforcing or resisting demands or expressing grievances, or supporting other employers in their demands or grievances.
Low pay rate
The low pay rate is a measure of earnings dispersion which refers to the proportion of employees whose hourly earnings at all jobs were less than two-thirds of median hourly earnings.
Low-skilled occupations
Broad skill levels are based on the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO). Low-skilled occupations refer to ISCO-08 and ISCO-88 category 9, which are elementary occupations. For more information, including the full correspondence table, refer to the ISCO page.
M
Medium-skilled occupations
Broad skill levels are based on the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO). Medium-skilled occupations refer to ISCO-08 and ISCO-88 categories 4 through 8. In ISCO-08, this includes clerical support workers, service and sales worker, skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers, craft and related trades workers, and plant and machine operators, and assemblers. For more information, including the full correspondence table, refer to the ISCO page.
Migrants
Migrants are individuals who changed their country of usual residence. For the purpose of ILOSTAT, migrants are defined based on either their country of birth or their country of citizenship. They include either all individuals who were born outside the country (foreign‐born population) or all individuals who do not hold the citizenship of the country (non‐citizens or foreign population). For more information, refer to the indicator description.
Minimum wage
The minimum wage is the lowest wage that employers are legally obliged to pay their employees. The basic national minimum wage can be fixed at an hourly, weekly or monthly rate, and this minimum wage is enforced by law (the government), often after consultation with the social partners. The scope and coverage of statutory minimum wages vary across countries (singular national minimum wage, regional minimum wage, sectorial minimum wage, occupational minimum wage, etc.).
N
National accounts
National accounts, based on the internationally recommended System of National Accounts (SNA), are a coherent, consistent and integrated set of macroeconomic accounts, balance sheets and tables based on a set of internationally agreed concepts, definitions, classifications and accounting rules. National accounts provide a comprehensive accounting framework within which economic data can be compiled and presented in a format that is designed for purposes of economic analysis, decision-taking and policy-making. There are a number of aggregate measures in the national accounts, most notably gross domestic product (GDP) which is the most widely used measure of aggregate economic activity in a period.
Nationals abroad
Stock of nationals abroad comprise the persons whose country of usual residence is not the same as their country of origin for any given country of origin. A person’s country of residence is the country in which the person has a place to live where he or she normally spends the daily period of rest. A person’s country of origin is that from which the person originates, i.e. the country of his or her citizenship (or, in the case of stateless persons, the country of usual residence).
Non-citizens
For a given country, the non-citizen population, also called the foreign population, comprises all individuals who do not hold the citizenship of the country.
Non-fatal occupational injury
A case of non-fatal occupational injury is the case of a worker incurring an occupational injury as a result of an occupational accident not leading to death. The non-fatal occupational injury entails a loss of working time. For more information, refer to the indicator description.
Non-standard forms of employment
There is no official definition of non-standard forms of employment. Typically, the term encompasses work that falls out of the realm of the “standard employment relationship”, understood as work that is full time, indefinite, as well as part of a subordinate and bilateral employment relationship. It includes but is not limited to: temporary employment; part-time work; temporary agency work and other forms of employment involving multiple parties; and disguised employment relationships and dependent self-employment.
Non‐citizen population
For a given country, the non-citizen population, also called the foreign population, comprises all individuals who do not hold the citizenship of the country.
Normal hours of work
The “normal hours of work” are the hours that workers are expected to spend on work activities during a short reference period such as one day or one week, as stipulated in laws or regulations, collective agreements or arbitral awards, or establishments’ rules or customs.
Not in education, employment or training
Also known as the NEET, this indicator provides a measure of youth (persons ages 15 to 24 unless otherwise indicated) who are outside the educational system, not in training and not in employment, and thus serves as a broader measure of potential youth labour market entrants than youth unemployment, since it also includes young persons outside the labour force not in education or training. For more information, refer to the indicator description.
O
Occupational accident
An occupational accident is an unexpected and unplanned occurrence, including acts of violence, arising out of or in connection with work which results in one or more workers incurring a personal injury, disease or death. For more information, refer to the indicator description.
Occupational fatality
An occupational fatality is an injury that is fatal as the result of an occupational accident where death occurred within one year from the day of the accident. For more information, refer to the indicator description.
Occupational injury
An occupational injury is defined as any personal injury, disease or death resulting from an occupational accident; an occupational injury is therefore distinct from an occupational disease, which is a disease contracted as a result of an exposure over a period of time to risk factors arising from work activity. A case of occupational injury is the case of one worker incurring an occupational injury as a result of one occupational accident. An occupational injury could be fatal (as a result of occupational accidents and where death occurred within one year of the day of the accident) or non-fatal with lost work time. For more information, refer to the indicator description.
Official estimates
Official estimates refers to information provided by national official entities which is derived from different sources and computed following certain assumptions that one should analyse cautiously prior to any interpretation. Official estimates are used in the absence of official surveys, census-based data or administrative records.
Outflow of nationals
The outflows of nationals for any given country refer to the number of its legal citizens who changed their country of usual residence to outside of that country during the reference period. A person’s country of usual residence is the country in which the person has a place to live where he or she normally spends the daily period of rest. Temporary travel abroad for purposes of recreation, holiday, business, medical treatment or religious pilgrimage does not entail a change in the country of usual residence.
Outflow of nationals for employment
The outflow of nationals for employment includes only the citizens who left their country for employment purposes, or the “for work” emigrants. This group therefore excludes the accompanying family members whose purpose of migration was not employment at the time of entry to the destination country.
Own-use production work
Persons in own-use production work are defined as all those of working age who, during a short reference period, performed any activity to produce goods or provide services for own final use. For more information, refer to the Resolution concerning statistics of work, employment and labour underutilization and the page on forms of work.  
P
Part-time employment rate
The incidence of part-time employment, also known as the part-time employment rate, represents the percentage of employment that is part time. The definition of part time varies by country. In ILOSTAT, we present the incidence of part-time employment based on a common definition of less than 35 actual weekly hours worked. It is derived from the indicator on employment by sex and actual weekly hours worked.
Permanent incapacity
Cases of permanent incapacity for work are cases of occupational injury where the persons injured were never able to perform again the normal duties of work in the job or post occupied at the time of the occupational accident causing the injury.
Persons outside the labour force
Persons outside the labour force comprise all persons of working age who, during the specified reference period, were not in the labour force (that is, were not employed or unemployed). The working age population is commonly defined as persons aged 15 years and older, but this varies from country to country. In addition to using a minimum age threshold, certain countries also apply a maximum age limit. For more information, refer to the Resolution concerning statistics of work, employment and labour underutilization 
Place of birth
This breakdown refers to the country of birth and distinguishes a country’s native-born population from the foreign-born.
Population
The total population comprises persons of all ages who were living in the country during the reference period, regardless of residency status or citizenship.
Population and housing censuses
The population census is a key source of information on the population, usually acting as the basis for a country’s official statistics on households and individuals. It is an exhaustive exercise, with universal coverage: all households in a country are contacted in the data collection phase and information on all household members is gathered. Thanks to this, it can serve as sample frame later on for sample surveys. Its universal coverage and high representativeness allow for the study of small population groups and geographical areas. Nevertheless, because it is such an exhaustive collection, a population census is very costly and is thus usually conducted infrequently. Generally, countries conduct population censuses every 10 years. Also, a population census tends to collect general information only, not going into detail for specific topics such as labour, which adversely affects the quality of the labour statistics obtained from this source. The population census is a main source of statistics for benchmarking purposes, for preparing sampling frames for household surveys and for producing estimates for small geographic areas and small groups. For more information, refer to the Quick Guide on Sources and Uses of Labour Statistics.
Population register
A population register is a mechanism for the continuous recording of selected information pertaining to each member of the resident population of a country or area, making it possible to determine up-to-date information about the size and characteristics of the population at selected points in time. Because of the nature of a population register, its organization, as well as its operation, should have a legal basis. Population registers start with a base consisting of an inventory of the inhabitants of an area and their characteristics, such as date of birth, sex, marital status, place of birth, place of residence, citizenship and language. For more information, refer to the Quick Guide on Sources and Uses of Labour Statistics.
Potential labour force
The potential labour force refers to persons not in employment who express an interest in this form of work but for whom existing conditions limit their active job search and/or their availability. This group is used to calculate alternative measures of labour underutilization. For more information, refer to the Resolution concerning statistics of work, employment and labour underutilization.
Prime-age persons
Prime-age refers to persons ages 25 to 54 in our databases.
Public sector employment
The total public sector employment covers all employment of general government sector as defined in System of National Accounts 1993 plus employment of publicly owned enterprises and companies, resident and operating at central, state (or regional) and local levels of government. It covers all persons employed directly by those institutions, without regard for the particular type of employment contract.
S
School-to-work transition stages
The school-to-work transition stages define the passage of a young person (aged 15 to 29 years) from the end of schooling to the first regular or satisfactory employment according to the following three stages of transition: 1) transited, 2) in transition, and 3) transition not yet started.
Skill level
Broad skill levels are based on the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO). For more information, including the correspondence table, refer to the ISCO page.
Social dialogue
Social dialogue is any type of negotiation, consultation or exchange of information between, or among, representatives of governments, employers and workers, on issues of common interest relating directly to work and related economic and social policies. The extent to which workers can express themselves on work related matters and participate in defining their working conditions is an important dimension of decent work. This can be channelled through collectively chosen representatives or involve direct interaction between workers and employers. The ability of workers to organise freely to defend their interests collectively in negotiations with the employer is a pivotal element of democracy at the workplace and the effectiveness of social dialogue. Strikes and lockouts are one measure of the failure of social dialogue. They are perhaps the most high profile aspect of social dialogue, at least in terms of media coverage and public impact and attention. At the same time in certain circumstances, the absence of strike action could indicate the absence of the right to strike and/or weak social dialogue.
Stock of nationals abroad
For a given country, the stock of nationals abroad refers to the number of its citizens who have their usual residence in another country at a given period of time.
Strikes
A strike is a temporary work stoppage carried out by one or more groups of workers with a view to enforcing or resisting demands or expressing grievances, or supporting other workers in their demands or grievances.
Subsistence foodstuff producers
Subsistence foodstuff producers constitute an important subgroup of persons in own-use production work. They are defined as all those who performed work activities such as producing and/or processing for storage agricultural, fishing, hunting and gathering products in order to produce foodstuff from agriculture, fishing, hunting or gathering that contribute to the livelihood of the household or family. Excluded are persons who engaged in such production as recreational or leisure activities.
Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) indicators
The 2030 Agenda and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were adopted in 2015 by the United Nations General Assembly. The 17 SDGs are a universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet, and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity. They cover a broad range of social and economic development issues, including poverty, hunger, health, education, climate change, gender equality, water, sanitation, energy, the environment and social justice, with a focus on the most vulnerable and a commitment that “no one will be left behind.” For information, refer to the SDG topic page.
T
Temporary employment
Temporary employment, whereby workers are engaged only for a specific period of time, includes fixed-term, project- or task-based contracts, as well as seasonal or casual work, including day labour.
Temporary incapacity
Cases of temporary incapacity are cases of occupational injury where the workers injured were unable to work from the day after the day of the accident, but were later able to perform again the normal duties of work in the job or post occupied at the time of the occupational accident causing the injury within a period of one year from the day of the accident.
Time-related underemployment
Persons in time-related underemployment are defined as all persons in employment who, during a short reference period, wanted to work additional hours, whose working time in all jobs was less than a specified hours threshold, and who were available to work additional hours given an opportunity for more work. For more information, refer to the indicator description.
Time-related underemployment rate
The time-related underemployment rate expresses the number of employed persons in time-related underemployment as a percent of total employment. For more information, refer to the indicator description.
Trade union
A trade union is defined as a workers’ organization constituted for the purpose of furthering and defending the interests of workers.
Trade union density rate
The trade union density rate conveys the number of workers who are union members as a percentage of the total number of workers. For more information, refer to the indicator description.
Trade union membership
Trade union membership is defined as the total number of workers that belong to a trade union. For purposes of international comparability, this number excludes, whenever possible, union members who are not in paid employment (unemployed, retired, etc.). For more information, refer to the indicator description.
Transited
Among the three possible school-to-work transition stages, the “transited” stage refers to a young person (aged 15 to 29) who is not in school and currently employed in a stable job or in a satisfactory self-employment or in a satisfactory temporary job.
Transition not yet started
Among the three possible school-to-work transition stages, the “transition not yet started” stage refers to a young person (aged 15 to 29) who is either: Still in school and outside the labour force or Not in school, outside the labour force and with no intention of looking for a job.
U
Unemployment
Persons in unemployment are defined as all those of working age who were not in employment, carried out activities to seek employment during a specified recent period and were currently available to take up employment given a job opportunity. For more information, refer to the Resolution concerning statistics of work, employment and labour underutilization and the indicator description.
Unemployment rate
The unemployment rate expresses the number of unemployed as a percent of the labour force (which includes persons in unemployment plus those in employment). The unemployed are persons of working age who were not in employment, carried out activities to seek employment during a specified recent period and were currently available to take up employment given a job opportunity. For more information, refer to the Resolution concerning statistics of work, employment and labour underutilization and the indicator description.
V
Volunteer work
Persons in volunteer work are defined as all those of working age who, during a short reference period, performed any unpaid, non-compulsory activity to produce goods or provide services for others. For more information, refer to the indicator description.
W
Wage rates
Wage rates include basic wages, cost-of-living allowances and other guaranteed and regularly paid allowances, but exclude overtime payments, bonuses and gratuities, family allowances and other social security payments made by employers. Ex gratia payments in kind, supplementary to normal wage rates, are also excluded.
Work
Work comprises any activity performed by persons of any sex and age to produce goods or to provide services for use by others or for own use. For more information, refer to the Resolution concerning statistics of work, employment and labour underutilization.
Workers involved in strikes and lockouts
Workers involved in strikes and lockouts represents the number of workers implicated directly or indirectly at any time during a strike or lockout, whether the involvement was for the full duration of the strike or lockout or only part of it. Workers who are unable to work as a result of the secondary effects of strikes or lockouts are not be included.
Working poor
The working poor are persons who, in spite of being employed, still live in a household classified as poor (i.e. household that has income or consumption levels below the poverty line).
Working poverty rate
The working poverty rate expresses the number of working poor as a percentage of the employed population.
Working time
Working time statistics relate to statistics on the hours of work and on the scheduling of these hours. The hours of work relates to any period of time spent on activities which contribute to the production of goods and services. The scheduling of the hours of work relates to the periods during the day, week or month when work is done: whether in the morning, afternoon, evening, from Monday to Friday, on weekends, as overtime, etc. For more information, refer to the topic page on working time.
Working-age population
The working-age population is commonly defined as persons aged 15 years and older, although the age limits can vary from country to country.
Y
Youth
In the Youthstats database, which includes school-to-work transition indicators, youth are defined as persons aged 15 to 29.  For the remaining databases, youth are defined as persons aged 15 to 24, unless otherwise noted.