The resolution adopted by the 19th ICLS promotes the collection of information on both hours usually worked and hours actually worked to allow for the proper identification of all groups defined in the resolution. ILOSTAT prioritizes the concept of hours actually worked, as this was promoted in the previous standards and is thus the one with more data availability.
The concept of hours usually worked relates to the typical value of hours actually worked in a job per a short reference period such as one week, over a long observation period of a month, quarter, season or year that comprises the short reference measurement period used. The typical value may be the modal value of the distribution of hours actually worked per short period over the long observation period, where meaningful. The short reference period for measuring hours usually worked should be the same as the reference period used to measure employment.
The concept of hours actually worked within the System of National Accounts (SNA) production boundary relates to the time that persons in employment spend directly on, and in relation to, productive activities; down time; and resting time during a specified time reference period. It thus includes (a) “direct hours” or the time spent carrying out the tasks and duties of a job; (b) “related hours”, or the time spent maintaining, facilitating or enhancing productive activities; (c) “down time”, or time when a person in a job cannot work due to machinery or process breakdown, accident, lack of supplies or power or Internet access; and (d) “resting time”, or time spent in short periods of rest, relief or refreshment, including tea, coffee or prayer breaks, generally practiced by custom or contract according to established norms and/or national circumstances.
Hours actually worked excludes time not worked during activities such as: (a) Annual leave, public holidays, sick leave, parental leave or maternity/paternity leave, other leave for personal or family reasons or civic duty; (b) Commuting time between work and home when no productive activity for the job is performed; (c) Time spent in certain educational activities; (d) Longer breaks distinguished from short resting time when no productive activity is performed (such as meal breaks or natural repose during long trips).
For a paid-employment job, hours paid for refers to the time for which employees have received payment from their employer (at normal or premium rates, in cash or in kind) during a specified reference period, regardless of whether the hours were actually worked or not. It includes time paid but not worked such as paid annual leave, paid public holidays and certain absences such as paid sick leave, and excludes time worked but not paid by the employer, such as unpaid overtime, and absences that are not paid by the employer, such as unpaid educational leave or maternity leave.
Data on working time presented in ILOSTAT reflects, to the extent possible, the hours worked in different types of working time arrangements (e.g. full-time and part-time) and include the hours worked in all jobs of employed persons (if the data are derived from a labour force survey).
Mean hours actually worked per week are calculated by dividing the total number of hours actually worked per week by: a) the total number of employee-held jobs during the same period, if the estimates are derived from an establishment survey; or b) the total number of persons in employment (or employees) if the statistics are derived from a labour force survey.
Employment comprises all persons of working age who during a specified brief period, such as one week or one day, were in the following categories: a) paid employment (whether at work or with a job but not at work); or b) self-employment (whether at work or with an enterprise but not at work).